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Songjiang, known as Huating, Yunjian, Rongcheng, Gushui, in ancient times, is a land of fish and rice. In 751 AD (Tang Dynasty), Huating County was established at modern-day Songjiang. In 1277 (Yuan Dynasty), Huating County was raised to Huating Prefecture. In the next year, it was renamed as Songjiang Prefecture. In 1805 (Qing Dynasty), the region was divided into one prefecture (Songjiang), seven counties (Huating, Shanghai, Qingpu, Lou, Fengxian, Jinshan, and Nanhui), and one town (Chuansha). In 1912 (the Republic of China), prefecture status was abolished, and Huating and Lou were merged into Huating County, which was under the jurisdiction of Jiangsu Province. In 1914 (the Republic of China), the region was renamed as Songjiang County. After the People's Republic of China was founded, Songjiang Division was set up. In March 1958, Songjiang Division was transferred to the jurisdiction of Suzhou Division. In November 1958, Songjiang was incorporated by Jiangsu Province into Shanghai City. In February 1998, Songjiang County was changed to Songjiang District upon approval from China's State Council.
Songjiang District, situated at 31° North latitude and 121.23° East longitude, is in the southwest of downtown and upper-middle reaches of the Huangpu River. The district boasts a sprawling road traffic network that connects Shanghai to the Yangtze River Delta and the Yangtze River Basin. Main arteries in the district include Shanghai-Hangzhou high-speed rail, Shanghai-Hangzhou expressway (G60 Shanghai-Kunshan expressway), Shanghai-Qingpu-Pingwang expressway (G50 Shanghai-Chongqing expressway), Tongjiang-Sanya national highway (G1501 Shanghai ring expressway), Jiading-Jinshan expressway (G15 Shenyang-Haikou expressway), airport expressway (S32 Shanghai-Jiaxing-Huzhou expressway), Shanghai Metro Line 9, and Shanghai Metro Line 22. Songjiang is becoming an increasingly important portal in the southwest of Shanghai.
Songjiang District covers an area of 604.64 sq km, accounting for 9.5% of the total area of Shanghai. With 87.9% of the area covered by land and the rest covered by water, the district is wide in the south and narrow in the north.
Songjiang District is located in the plain region of the Yangtze River Delta and at the bottom of a dish-shaped depression in the Taihu Lake Basin. The surface elevation of over 27,000 hectares of the district's arable land is below 3.2 m.
Featuring a northern subtropical monsoon climate, Songjiang District enjoys ample rainfall, and the weather here is hot and humid in summer and cold and dry in winter. In 2017, the district saw a higher-than-average temperature, a longer sunshine duration, and normal rainfall. Specifically, the average temperature was 17.8°C, 1.6°C higher than previous years; the sunshine duration was 1,952.7 hours, 153.7 hours more than previous years; and the rainfall was 1,113.3 mm, 54.9 mm lower than previous years. Songjiang's maximum and minimum temperatures in 2017 were 39.9°C and 3.7°C, respectively.
Songjiang's water resources come from the Huangpu River system. Water from the upstream Dianshan Lake, Taihu Lake, and Tianmu Mountain flows to the Huangpu River and then to the East China Sea. As a typical brooky region, Songjiang boasts a great number of tidal rivers, where the tide ebbs and flows twice every 24 hours.
By the end of 2017, Songjiang district has 11 towns and six subdistricts as well as 251 neighborhood committees and 85 village committees. The district also houses the National Songjiang Economic and Technological Development Zone, Songjiang Export Processing Zone, and Sheshan National Tourist Resort.
By the end of 2017, the district registered 1.7513 million permanent residents, down 0.8% from the previous year. Specifically, the number of native permanent residents grew 1.2% year on year to 691,800, and the number of non-native permanent residents fell 2.0% year on year to 1.0595 million.
By the end of 2017, the registered population in the district rose 1.6% year on year to 634,239, among which, the urban population increased 2.0% from the previous year to 495,836. In 2017, a total of 6,200 new native residents were born in the district, with a birth rate of 9.775‰, and a total of 4,744 native residents died, with a death rate of 7.480‰, which indicated a natural population growth rate of 2.295‰. In 2017, the average life expectancy in the district was 83.36 years, of which, the life expectancy for men and women was 81.34 years and 85.38 years, respectively.
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Sports in Songjiang